Posts Tagged ‘United States’

Floods: A Photo Essay

September 11, 2017

In honor of those devastated by the recent flooding all over the world, including Texas and Florida in the United States, the Caribbean, Africa and across Southeast Asia, NWNL takes a look at photos from our archives of flooding in our case study watersheds.

Columbia River Basin

Jones_070607_BCa_0058In British Columbia, Columbia River flooding from melting snow pack and storms, threatens barns and farmlands.  (2007)

Jones_070607_BC_1989Barn and truck underwater in British Columbia from Columbia River flooding due to melting snow pack and storms.  (2007)

 

Mississippi River Basin

MO-STG-411Mississippi River flood of 1993, St Genevieve, Missouri.

USA:  Missouri, West Alton, road flooded in the Mississippi River flood of 1993Road flooded in West Alton, Missouri during the Mississippi River flood of 1993.

 

Raritan River Basin

Jones_110311_NJ_7383 A submerged park bench during the spring floods in Clinton, New Jersey, part of the South Branch of the Raritan River Basin. (2011)

Jones_110311_NJ_7451 Hamden Road flooded near Melick’s bridge in Clinton, New Jersey, part of the South Branch of the Raritan River Basin. (2011)

 

Omo River Basin

Jones_070919_ET_0261_MDassenech village, located on the Omo Delta in Ethiopia, flooded by the Omo River and polluted by livestock effluent. (2007)

Jones_070919_ET_0289_MGranary hut built on stilts on a flooded plain in the Dassenech village in Ethiopia. (2007)

 

Posted by Sarah Kearns, NWNL Project Manager.

All photos © Alison M. Jones.

Massive cleanup of coal ash spill continues

October 15, 2014

Exactly one year ago today, NWNL documented the clean up of the Nation’s largest coal fly ash spill at Kingston Fossil Plant, TN.  In 2008, over 1 billion gallons of coal ash slurry leaked into the Emory and Clinch Rivers, part of the Mississippi River basin. The recovery will continue into 2015.

Did you know you can take a tour of the site?

– Posted by Jasmine Graf, NWNL Associate Director

Grass is #1 US crop and is very water-dependent

July 14, 2014

Using satellite imagery, NASA’s Christina Milesi has been studying the impact of lawns on America’s fresh water resources. Research indicates there’s at least 3 times more surface area of lawns in the U.S. than irrigated corn, making it the largest irrigated crop.

How do lawns hurt the environment?

 fertilizers run off into drains, contaminating drinking water

 fertilizers pollute rivers and streams and damage ecosystems

 watering lawns depletes our freshwater reserves

chemical herbicides / pesticides are health risks to humans and wildlife

lawns infringe on viable habitat for pollinators like bees

 an hour of gas-powered lawn mowing produces as much pollution as four hours of driving a car

Consider Xeriscaping!

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USA California, Santa Barbara, Firescape Garden by firestation on Stanwood

View more xeriscape gardens here.

 

For further reading:

Lawn Pesticide Fact Sheet

Assessing the Extent of Urban Irrigated Areas in the United States.

HEY, TAKE A HIKE on Nat’l Trails Day! – June 7

June 6, 2014
US: Oregon, Columbia River Basin, Columbia Gorge, Eagle Creek Trail

US: Oregon, Columbia River Basin, Columbia Gorge, Eagle Creek Trail

There are over 200,000 miles of hiking trails in the United States according to the American Hiking Society. Tread lightly and leave no trace! Nature awaits.

Click here to find an event near you.

“To be whole. To be complete. Wildness reminds us what it means to be human, what we are connected to rather than what we are separate from.”

– Terry Tempest Williams, testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Forest & Public Lands Management regarding the Utah Public Lands Management Act of 1995.

Related event: Mark your calenders!
NWF’s Great American Backyard Campout on June 28 –

inspiring people of all ages to go outside and connect with nature.

– Posted by Jasmine Graf, NWNL Associate Director

May 30, 2014
USA: Missouri, Near Van Buren, water plants growing below surface of Big Stream (Ozarks).

Missouri: water plants growing below surface of Big Stream (Ozarks).

By means of water, we give life to everything. 

-Koran 21:30

UNDERSTANDING COAL and CARBON and WATER (as U.S. weighs coal regulations and alternatives)

May 28, 2014

IF COAL = CARBON, how do carbon emissions affect
RIVERS, WATERSHEDS and FRESHWATER SUPPLIES?
(Facts from THE UNION OF CONCERNED SCIENTISTS)

Air pollution: Burning coal creates smog, soot, acid rain, global warming and toxic air emissions. It is the single biggest air polluter in the U.S. and those airborne particulates fall onto land and into rivers.

Fuel supply: Mining, transporting and storing coal pollutes our land, water and air – and levels our mountains, the headwater sources of our rivers.

Water use: Coal plants consume billions of gallons of cooling water, heating and lowering river levels which then harms wildlife.

Wastes: Ash, sludge, toxic chemicals and wasted heat create environmental problems.

USA: Huntington, West Virginia, storing coal

USA: Huntington, West Virginia, storing coal

A typical coal-powered plant uses only 33-35% of the coal’s heat to produce electricity. The majority of coal’s heat is released into the air or absorbed by the cooling water which is returned to local rivers. Annual waste from a coal plant’s smokestack scrubbers includes an average of 125,000 tons of ash and 193,000 tons of sludge. Forty-two percent of U.S. coal combustion waste ponds and landfills are unlined, which makes them permeable.

When the waste toxins – arsenic, mercury, chromium and cadmium – contaminate drinking-water supplies, they can damage vital human organs and nervous systems. Ecosystems are also damaged by the disposal of coal-plant waste, sometimes severely or permanently.

USA: West Virginia, coal plant on Ohio River north of Wheeling

USA: West Virginia, coal plant on Ohio River north of Wheeling

SINCE U.S. COAL POWER PLANTS ARE DECLINING,
WHY REGULATE OR REDUCE THEIR EMISSIONS NOW?

  Although coal power only accounted for 49% of the U.S. electricity production in 2006, it represented 83% of CO2 emissions caused by electricity generation that year. (Wikipedia)

  In 2012, CO2 emissions from electric power were only 39% of all U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions; but coal generated 74% of that 39%, thus coal continues to be a significant polluter.

Jan 2014 Primary Energy Production by Source
measured in quadrillion Btu
(most recent figures from U.S. Energy Information Agency, p. 5)

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USA: Idaho,  Columbia River Basin, Snake River Basin

USA: Idaho, Columbia River Basin, Snake River Basin

NWNL Expedition Spotlights California Drought! 

March 14, 2014

 Chasing California’s Thirst
  March 14-26, 2014 Expedition

No Water No Life will visit the Sacramento Delta from San Francisco Bay to Antioch, the Sacramento River from the Delta north to the Butte Sink region, and the San Joaquin River from the Delta south to Bakersfield to document causes, impacts and solutions of California’s drought with photography, video and stakeholder interviews.

PROBLEMS:
– Increased Population and Growing Irrigation Demands with Finite Water Supplies
– Neither Consumers nor Regulators have sufficiently addressed The Value of Water

JUSTIFICATIONS:
– It affects us all!  CA supplies 50% of US veggies, fruits and nuts.
– No Water – No Irrigation – No Farms – No Food – No Jobs = Economic hit for all of the US!
– CA’s Drought Solutions can help solve the global problem of  “More people – Less available clean water.”

PURPOSE:
NWNL will document causes, impacts and solutions to CA’s Drought.
How will CA move from Water Scarcity to Water Sustainability?

Is the California Drought here to stay?

March 12, 2014

The short answer is an emphatic, “YES!” It is real. Even if El Niño arrives next year, as some climatologists have hinted, California currently uses too much water to allow replenishment of its reservoirs and ground water – now at historic low levels. It is predicted that precipitation levels will fluctuate wildly, as they have historically, while water demand increases. The California Data Exchange Center reports that California reservoirs are at 62.39% of average. Some are as low as 7 and 9%. The Sierra snowpack in the northern part of the state has reached 21% of average, up from 12% before the early March storms. Nowhere in the state is the snowpack above 34% and very little rain is forecast for the rest of this year’s rainy season. San Francisco residents depend on snow melt for their water. Some towns in California are predicted to have no water within 60 days. Irresponsible water use should not drain our precious resource.

One answer is conservation and planning. According to Barton H. “Buzz” Thompson, an expert in environmental and natural resources law and policy at Stanford University, there are many ways that Californians can use less water. At a symposium presented by the Bill Lane Center for the American West and the Water in the West Project at Stanford University, Thompson proposed that the state protect ground water, protect the environment, avoid building new reservoirs and desalinization plants, set up water exchanges where even fish have water rights, and encourage water utilities to tier water rates.

Many of us who were here in the big droughts of 1976-77 and 1985-86 have already tightened our belts, so trying to reach the voluntary 20% reduction, as requested by Governor Brown, is going to mean even more careful planning. California has more people and less water. The state produces nearly half of US-grown fruits, nuts and vegetables and has the highest per-state cash farm receipts in the nation, per CA Dept of Food and Agriculture. This farmland has international importance as well. It grows 70% of the world’s almonds.

The state needs to put serious water conservation measures in place before any rains that El Nino might bring next year could lull everyone back into complacency.

Related links for more information:

http://west.stanford.edu/publications/video/california-drought-causes-context-and-responses

http://www.aquafornia.com

http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/statistics/

*Posted from San Francisco by Barbara Folger, NWNL Project Coordinator

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A New 65′ Crack Found in Wanapum Dam: NWNL Reflects on “Saving the Past for the Future”

March 3, 2014
US:  Washington, Columbia River Basin, Wanapum Dam

Cover of a book on the Wanapum Indians.

Drummers and Dreamers:

Wanapum Indians and the Wanapum Dam

On the Columbia River.

By Alison M. Jones, Director of No Water No Life.
Image

Downstream side of the Wanapum Dam.

On March 1, a 65-foot-long crack was found in the hydroelectric #Wanapum Dam in Grant County WA.  This dam generates over 4 million megawatt hours annually, providing power to over 45,000 local customers and throughout the Pacific Northwest. The Bonneville Power Administration, now investigating the “risk of failure” presented by this crack, has notified residents downstream of possible evacuation and has closed all nearby boat ramps.  (For updates: http://www.grantpud.org/your-pud/media-room/news)  The dam’s initial 50-year operating license was granted in 1955 and extended by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in 2008.  However, that approval came with conditions, including modernization of the facility’s power generation capability.

Image

Columbia River near Vantage WA, upstream of Wanapum Dam.

In 2007 a No Water No Life expedition, following the Columbia River from source to sea, visited Wanapum Dam to add to its documentation of the values and the impacts of hydropower.  The dam is named for the Wanapum Indians whose tule houses along the Columbia River were flooded by the building of the dam.  Respecting the longtime Wanapum residents, the dam also houses the Heritage Center Museum displaying their cultural artifacts and documenting the upstream relocation of the town of Vantage.

The juxtaposition of this large, now-cracked hydrodam and displays of the heritage of Wanapum weavings, moccasins and prayers is a bit ironic.  Perhaps lessons can be gained from the traditional values of these “River People” as we consider the risks presented today by infrastructure, industry, machines and our efforts to control nature.  The words of Rex Buck, today’s Wanapum leader, are shown at the Heritage Center Museum:

Before the arrival of white man, Native Americans believed that all living things were endowed with spirit.  They believed that nature was alive and responsive to their needs for physical and spiritual nourishment.  Wisdom was passed from generation to generation in stories that embraced the spiritual characteristics of coyote, bear and all the animals.  Native Americans were the sensitive guardians of earth and all living things.  The arrival of the fur traders brought a slow and disastrous end to this symbiotic relationship.

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Wanapum Moccasins and weaving at the Heritage Center Museum.

In the early 1800’s the Wanapum numbered 2500 to 3000, according to the journals of Lewis and Clark.  Historically, the Wanapum have gathered roots from fields above Ephrata (near Soap Lake) down to the Snake River.  Until 1956 they had permanent winter villages of A-frames made with mats of tule gathered by the riverbanks, that were stowed during summer months.

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Sculpture of salmon at the Wanapum Dam.

In the spring the Wanapum went to Soap Lake to gather fruit.  In the summer they fished salmon with 14’ poles, submerged basket traps and torches at night.  While drying and storing their salmon, they ate eel and fresh-water mussels.  In the fall the women dug for roots which they ate raw, cooked or dried.  Into the winter hunted deer, big horn sheep, elk, rabbit and waterfowl.

According to Lenora Seelatsee, their mother was “Earth Woman,” who provided spiritual and physical sustenance and encouraged them to respect nature, peace and cooperation with others. Around 1700 the horse was introduced to this community; and the first impact of Europeans was the introduction of metal and glass beads.  Because the Wanapum never went to war with the U. S., there was never a treaty. Thus, they’ve received no recognition, land titles or money from the US government.

Editor and author of Drummers and Dreamers, Click Relander is the only white man buried in the Wanapum cemetery – an expression of their appreciation for his letters during the dam-building agreement requesting that the Wanapum got housing, electricity and jobs.  The Public Utility Department (PUD) rebuilt their 10 homes and long house.  The US Military still protects the Wanapum cemetery and their root-digging fields per an agreement with the Depart of Energy, downstream at Hanford Nuclear Site.  Seven years ago there were only 65 Wanapum left, according to Susan Parker, a Heritage Center docent.  That community represented 3 or 4 families on the west side of the Columbia River adjacent to military lands across from Priest Rapids.

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Transmission lines at the Wanapum Dam.

In 2007 NWNL spoke with Rex Buck, today’s Wanapum “prophet and spiritual guide.” (The Wanapum had no need for a “chief” because the tribe never fought.)  NWNL unfortunately didn’t meet Rex in person because his sister Lenora had died just “three sunrises earlier.”  But in a short phone conversation with NWNL, Rex talked of ongoing Wanapum culture and customs, as he explained that the Wanapum honor their deceased by not using their proper name for one year after their death.  At the end of that year observance, there is a “Give Away” memorial service that bequeaths the belongings of the deceased.

Today Rex continues to disseminate the spirit of #Smowhalla, the first Wanapum prophet and shaman who is remembered for interpreting his dreams and stressing the importance of sharing with others. The museum displays Smowhalla’s words to his people:  “Each one must learn for himself the highest wisdom.  It cannot be taught in words.”

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Archival photograph of the Wanapum and their long house, covered with tule mats.

As Smowhalla’s current successor, Rex Buck shared ongoing Wanapum wisdom with NWNL, saying, “We have feeling for all this land and to our past.”  When asked about the cultural resources of his tribe, Rex answered, “They are further and beyond dictionary definition.”  It seems that the Wanapum intertwine cultural resources with natural resources and together both are valued as the Creator’s promise for the future.

Puck Hyah Toot (Johnny Buck) spoke about the Creator’s gifts at the naming of the Wanapum Dam at Public Utilities Department office at Ephrata in May 1955.

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Electric transmission towers at Wanapum Dam

The part of the District where we lived the Creator made.  He made Earth.  He spread upon the Earth things for the Indian people so they could live.  He gave them roots and berries, salmon he put in their streams, and caused wild fowl and wild animals to come upon the land.  These were the foods the Indian has enjoyed, good food the Creator had given.  When I think of losing these things, I think I am losing my life!  I do not feel I should get angry or say anything that a dam is being built.  I feel that somehow I and my people will get by as long as we have friends like are here.  The Creator predicted and directed that the light shall fall upon the earth and give warming light to everything upon it.  The sun will brighten and warm the body of the Indian and will preserve that body.  You and I get this living under that light.  If any person does wrong to another race, the Creator will punish that person.  That we believe.

The Wanapum are disappearing. When the dam was built (1959-1963), there were only 5 full-blooded Wanapum.  Now there are about 60 Wanapum enrolled and assimilated into the Yakima Nation.  But even the family of Rex Buck, today’s Wanapum’s prophet, is not full-blooded. Rex’s mother is from Warm Springs, Oregon, and his wife is a Yakima Indian.

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“Saving the Past for the Future” – Philosophy of the Wanapum Indian Trust Collection.

Despite this assimilation, diabetes, alcoholism and epidemics, the messages of these “River People” will survive.  But will the natural resources given by their Creator survive?  What risks are engendered when dams crack?  The Grant County PUD’s policy is to “care for the preservation and conservation of the Collection” of Wanapum cultural resources in its Heritage Museum.  Are they also caring for “the preservation and conservation” of our natural resources?

Frank Buck, Rex’s uncle, asked us to share and respect our differing approaches to stewarding water, power, and food needed for all living on shared riverbanks.  On June 2, 1962, at the dedication of Priest Dam downstream of Wanapum Dam, Frank Buck shared this perspective:

I have a few words to express about white people.  You are glad that this Priest Rapids Dam is finished.  You are dedicating it today.  We are very glad to be with you here today.  This power is very important to you.  This power is like food to you.  The water that is making this power provides you all the food you need.  Your power and my power are two different things.  The things that I am showing outside of the teepees (in the village built for the dedication of the dam site), that is the food that we Indians was provided with.  That food will take care of us.  That food makes me strong and healthy.  It is our medicine.  Even what law comes against us, we don’t hold it against you.  We Indians are still friends with you.  You White People, We Indians.  It is our thoughts to go together as one on this Earth.  We will be taken care of.

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Maintenance construction at the Wanapum Dam in 2007

Columbia River is one of the most hydro-dammed rivers in the world

December 3, 2013

The Columbia is one of the most hydro-dammed river basins in the world with some dams now over 70 years old. These dams change downstream water flows, and stop fish migrations. They are also buckling under decades of accumulated polluted sediment. The pressure is on for decommissioning many of these older dams, and 2 large ones on the Columbia have been removed recently – keeping the decades of that polluted sediment behind them from rushing downstream.

The Columbia is typical of many rivers that are heavily polluted by agriculture, industry, nuclear plants, livestock farms, and human waste. And now many of those pollutants are too deeply embedded for us to remove.

Nature could have done that clean-up job, but we’ve destroyed too many of the natural filters that would freely purify our dirty water: forest, wetlands, oysters…

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