Welcome to #10 of 11 blogs written by Alison Jones before her departure to Uganda and Kenya as NWNL’s lead photographer. Updated 4/11: Location and text have been updated to reflect revised plans.
The former Rippon Falls, where L. Victoria becomes the Nile and J. H. Speke camped in 1862
Date: Sat–Wed, 10–14 April 2010 /Entry 10
Reporter: Alison M. Jones
NWNL will end its White Nile River Basin expedition in Jinga on Lake Victoria, the head of the Victoria Nile. With the guidance of a member of the National Association of Professional Engineers, NWNL will photograph fishing on Lake Victoria, the Bujagali and Owen Falls dams, and a local resettlement village created for those who had to be moved out of the Bujagali Reservoir. Discussions will focus on the processes followed (or not followed) in constructing these hydro dams and on other Nile River Basin projects that NAPE is focused on that impact Nile watershed ecosystems and water supplies, including oil exploration and extraction from protected areas.
From the field: The end of NWNL’s Uganda expedition was the beginning: the source of the Nile at the northern end of Lake Victoria’s Napoleon Bay! In 1862 John Hanning Speke was the first European to see Rippon Falls, submerged when the Owen Falls Dam was built (1954). At this hydrological landmark the Nile River begins its 4000-mile (6400-km), 3-month-long journey north to the Mediterranean Sea.
Our visit to Bujagali Falls, downstream from Rippon Falls, gave us an understanding of the power and drama of the Nile – what Rippon Falls was like before the Owen and Kiira Dams. Bujagali Falls provide nesting sanctuary for many bird species and are home to the spiritual gods of the Busoga Kingdom. Yet these falls will also be submerged when the government, with support of international financial institutions, finishes another large hydropower dam, despite the failed productions of the two immediately upstream.
A villager from Malindi where blasting for the Bujagali Dam has cracked many homes
These losses will be in vain because it is all but certain that the Bujagali dam will never reach its promised production of 250 megawatts. The upstream Owen Falls and Kiira Dams, meant to produce 350–380 megawatts of power, only produce 120 megawatts now – less than half intended! This is because of Lake Victoria’s falling water levels due to climate change, increased extraction by growing populations, and deforestation in the headwaters of rivers entering the lake. Water amounts coming into the Bujagali Dam are no different than that coming into the two upstream dams, as there are no additional tributaries between them and the Bujagali site.
Additionally, there were no proper environmental or social impact studies prior to construction. The government has largely disregarded the effects of the dam on the livelihoods of local stakeholders, whether resettled or suffering from the blast impacts. Surrounding communities (comprising over 8000 people) are struggling with landlessness, food insecurity, declining environmental quality, declining health, collapse of their fishing industry, and uncertain socio-economic futures. Resettled farmers who were moved from the Nile’s riverine flood plains have been struggling for 10 years to live on reassigned land that lacks water, sanitation or trees.
On top of these socio-economic issues, the cost of the dam relative to the amount of power expected will make Bujagali Dam’s hydropower the most expensive in the world – certainly not affordable to the 90% of Ugandans who currently lack electricity. NWNL hopes that the advocacy efforts of its newest partner, NAPE (National Association of Professional Issues), will help raise awareness and mitigate some of the problems being caused by the Bujagali Dam. The World Bank and the European Investment Banks are currently conducting investigations and withholding their critical funding until the reviews are concluded and recommendations initiated.
Alison Jones at the Source of the Nile with flag of NWNL’s fiscal sponsor, WINGS WorldQuest