Posts Tagged ‘ancient egypt’

The Forgotten Forests of Egypt

January 16, 2018

By Joannah Otis for NWNL

This is the sixth of our blog series on the Nile River in Egypt by NWNL Researcher Joannah Otis, sophomore at Georgetown University. Following her blogs on the Nile in Ancient Egypt, this essay addresses the importance of trees and indigenous flora to Ancient Egyptians. [NWNL has completed documentary expeditions to the White and Blue Nile Rivers, but due to current challenges for photojournalists visiting Egypt and Sudan, NWNL is using literary and online resources to investigate the availability, quality and usage of the main stem of the Nile.]

2nd blog 2Willow Tree

Trees played a symbolic role in early Egyptian life as they were associated with both Ra, the sun god, and Osiris, god of the afterlife. Sycamore trees were thought to stand at the gates of heaven while the persea tree was considered a sacred plant. According to ancient myths, the willow tree protected Osiris’s body after he was killed by his brother Set. These trees and others served as physical manifestations of the gods that Egyptians worshipped. Their importance speaks to the dependence this civilization had on the indigenous flora of the Nile River Basin.1

Historic records indicate that Ancient Egypt developed a forest management system in the 11th century CE, but later tree harvesting eliminated much of these forests. This, along with the gradual transition to a dryer climate in Egypt, spelled the demise of the sacred persea tree.2  Sometimes referred to as the ished tree, it was first grown and worshipped in Heliopolis during the Old Kingdom, but later spread its roots in Memphis and Edfu. It is a small evergreen tree with yellow fruit that grew throughout Upper Egypt. Egyptians held that the tree was protected by Ra in the form of a cat and closely associated it with the rising run.3 The persea was believed to hold the divine plan within its fruit, which would give eternal life and knowledge of destiny to those who ate it. To the Egyptians, the tree’s trunk represented the world pillar around which the heavens revolved. It was also considered a symbol of resurrection and many used its branches in funerary bouquets. The persea tree no longer grows in Africa, likely because the climate is dryer today than it was in the time of the Ancient Egyptians.4

EGDP007693Persea fruit pendant from Upper Egypt c. 1390-1353 BCE

 

The willow tree has grown in Egypt since prehistoric times and is usually found in wet environments or near water. Today, its timber is used for carving small items, but centuries ago, its branches were strung together to form garlands for the gods. Willow leaf garlands in the shape of crowns have also been found in the tombs of pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Tutankhamen, to align them with Osiris.5 After being murdered by his brother Set, Osiris’s body was placed into a coffin and thrown into the Nile River. Around this coffin, a willow tree sprang up to protect the godly body. Towns with groves of willow trees were believed to house one of the dismembered parts of Osiris and thus became sacred spaces.6

Although of lesser importance, the sycamore tree was also considered a sacred plant. It was generally thought of in relation to the goddesses Nut, Hathor, and Isis who were sometimes depicted reaching out from the tree to offer provisions to the deceased. As a result, sycamores were often planted near graves or used to make coffins so the dead could return to the mother tree goddess.7 Other significant trees include the Tamarisk, which was sacred to Wepwawet, and the Acacia tree, which was associated with Horus.8 Each of these trees contribute to the great biodiversity of the Nile River Basin and served religious purposes for the Ancient Egyptian people.

2nd blog 3Model of a Porch and Garden with Sycamore Trees from Upper Egypt c. 1981-1975 BCE

Sources

1 “Tree (nehet).” EgyptianMyths.net. Web.
2“Country Report – Egypt.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Web.
3“Ancient Egyptian Plants: The Persea Tree.” reshafim.org. 2002. Web.
4 “The Tree of Life.” LandOfPyramids.org. 2015. Web.
5“Ancient Egyptian Plants: The Willow.” reshafim.org. 2002. Web.
6Witcombe, Christopher. “Trees and the Sacred.” Sweet Briar College. Web.
7Witcombe, Christopher. “Trees and the Sacred.” Sweet Briar College. Web.
8“Tree (nehet).” EgyptianMyths.net. Web.
All photos used based on fair use of Creative Commons and Public Domain.

Nile River Flora

January 10, 2018

By Joannah Otis for No Water No Life (NWNL)

This is the 5th blog in the NWNL series on the Nile River in Egypt by NWNL Researcher Joannah Otis, a sophomore at Georgetown University. This essay addresses the history and uses of the most prevalent types of flora growing in the Nile River Basin. [NWNL has completed documentary expeditions to the White and Blue Nile Rivers, but due to current challenges for photojournalists visiting Egypt and Sudan, NWNL is using literary and online resources to investigate the availability, quality and usage of the main stem of the Nile.]

The Nile River is home to thousands of species of flora, many of which were vital to the livelihoods of Ancient Egyptians. Aside from growing crops for consumption, Egyptians have long grown plants like cotton, papyrus, and flax for commercial purposes. The diversity and extent of plant life in Egypt is a tribute to the Nile River’s incredible life-giving capacity.

Egyptian cotton is perhaps the most well-known plant product to emerge from the African continent, although the modern variety was not cultivated in Egypt until 1821 when ruler Mohamed Ali Pasha discovered that his country’s climate was perfect for growing cotton. It should be noted, however, that the native variety (G. herbaceum) was first cultivated by Pliny in first century CE Nubia. By 1869, cotton production had expanded significantly to meet the demands of European textile factors in the wake of the American Civil War. Both the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 benefitted the cotton trade. While the canal made trade easier and more accessible, the dam protected the cotton from flooding and allowed for the expansion of its cultivation by providing regular irrigation. Today, Egypt remains a significant exporter of cotton to countries all over the world.1

800px-Cotton_field_kv17Cotton Field
Attribution: Kimberly Vardeman

In Ancient Egypt, the linen made from flax was a universal fabric that every citizen wore regardless of class. Linen is still grown in Egypt, although it is no longer the sole clothing material worn. Considered to be a symbol of purity and divine light, linen was a sacred cloth used to mummify the dead. It was also used to make sails and as a form of payment. The earliest example of Egyptian linen dates from 4500 BCE. Towards the end of the Egyptian civilization, the government established linen production centers staffed by slave laborers. Since everyone wore linen, class was differentiated by the fineness of the weave and the number of layers worn; the more important the person, the finer the weave and the more layers they wore. Flax was not only a source of wealth, but also a signifier of it.2

Although papyrus no longer populates the banks of Egypt’s Nile River due to human overexploitation, it was once a plentiful crop that served several purposes for the Ancient Egyptians. Papyrus thrives in shallow fresh water or water-saturated areas, so the Nile Delta marshes and low-lying areas of the Nile Valley were home to dense thickets of the plant. It was harvested to make skiffs used for hunting, pilgrimages, local transport, and funerals as well as to make writing surfaces. This early form of paper was created under heavy pressure from layers of pith found inside the stalk. Fortunately, Egypt’s dry climate has preserved many early papyrus documents, which indicate that the surface was used for letters, legal texts, religious narratives, illustrations, contracts, and administrative documents. The earliest of these dates from c. 2500 BCE and was discovered at Wadi el-Jarf, a Red Sea port. A blank roll of papyrus dating from c. 2900 BCE was also found in the tomb of a high official named Hemaka. These preserved papyri are significant because the surface was often erased and reused several times.3 The cultivation and use of papyrus for writing material ceased in the 9th century CE when paper from other plant fibers became more popular.4

799px-Cyperus_papyrus_(Kafue_River)Papyrus thicket
Attribution: Hans Hillewaert

Papyrus also played a significant role in the Ancient Egyptian religion as the marshes where it grew were considered fertile areas containing the seeds of creation. According to Egyptian myth, the goddess Isis hid her son in the papyrus thickets of Lower Egypt after her brother Seth murdered her husband Osiris. This infant, Horus, was raised amongst the papyrus by the goddess Hathor who was depicted as a cow emerging from papyrus thickets and was worshipped in the Shaking of the Papyrus ritual. Wadjet, the protector goddess of Lower Egypt, was similarly shown carrying a scepter made of papyrus. The ceilings of temples and tombs were often supported by columns whose capitals resembled the tops of papyrus plants. To the Ancient Egyptians, papyrus thickets were symbolic of chaos surrounding and threatening their world as the tickets often hid dangerous creatures such as hippos and crocodiles. Nonetheless, papyrus played an indispensable role in early Egypt.5

Papyrus marsh c. 1427-1400 Upper Egypt

Aside from flax, cotton, and papyrus, Ancient Egyptians grew numerous other crops. These included barley, fava beans, lentils, lettuce, peas, onions, cucumbers, melons, radishes, emmer, wheat, barley, wheat, leeks, grapes, chickpeas, dill, and sesame. Present-day Egyptians continue to harvest these crops with the exception of emmer, which was not grown after the Roman Period, and barley, which also declined after the Roman Period as a result of the popularity of wine over beer. The wide variety of flora found in Egypt speaks to the lushness of the Nile River Basin.6

07.230.34Inlay depicting a bunch of grapes c. 1479-1458 BCE Egypt

Sources:

1 “History of Egyptian Cotton.” Cotton Egypt Association. Web.
2 “Flax in Ancient Egypt” North Dakota State University. 2007. Web
3 Kamrin, Janice. “Papyrus in Ancient Egypt.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web
4 “Egyptian Papyrus.” Egyptain-papyrus.co.uk. Web
5Kamrin, Janice. “Papyrus in Ancient Egypt.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
6“Agriculture and horticulture in acient Egypt.” Reshafim.org. 2000. Web.
All photos used based on fair use of Creative Commons and Public Domain.

 

Hippos, Crocodiles and Snakes – Oh My!

December 12, 2017

By Joannah Otis for No Water No Life 

This is the fourth in our blog series on The Nile River in Egypt by NWNL Researcher Joannah Otis, sophomore at Georgetown University. This essay addresses the significance of the most prevalent species of fauna living along the Nile River Basin in Ancient Egypt. [NWNL has completed documentary expeditions to the White and Blue Nile Rivers, but due to current challenges for photojournalists visiting Egypt and Sudan, NWNL is using literary and online resources to investigate the availability, quality and usage of the main stem of the Nile.]

Animals played a significant role in Ancient Egyptian life as pets, hunting partners and religious embodiments of various gods. Wildlife in the Lower Nile River Basin served as physical manifestations of deities, allowing early Egyptians to foster a closer connection to their gods.1 Their importance is evident from the hundreds of animal mummies found in tombs of the pharaohs and officials.  Hippos and crocodiles, due to their size and potential for harm to boats and laborers on the Nile River banks, were worshipped in the hopes that they would not bother humans.

william Hippopotamus (“William”), ca. 1961-1878 B.C.

 

Ancient Egyptians attempted to placate hippos by giving offerings to the goddess Taurent, depicted as a pregnant hippo since she was believed to be the goddess of fertility.2 The most famous Egyptian hippopotamus today is found at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and nicknamed “William.”  Residing in the museum since 1917, William has become an endearing mascot of the institution. He was molded in faience, a ceramic material of ground quartz, during the Middle Kingdom circa 1961-1878 BCE in Middle Egypt. His blue-glazed body is decorated with river plants indigenous to Egypt.  

Since hippos were thought to reside in the waterways along the journey to the afterlife, they were considered as an animal to be respected both in life and in death. This is evidenced by William’s three broken legs, which were purposely maimed to prevent him from harming the deceased.3 

As well as wild animals, domesticated animals, such as sheep, cattle, horses, cats and dogs doubled as objects of religious worship. Sheep were employed to trample newly-sown seed into flooded plots of land, in addition to providing their owners with wool, skins, meat and milk. Thus rams, associated with Amun the god of Thebes and Khnum the creator god, were interpreted as signs of fertility.  Cattle were similarly prized and imported as war spoils. Horses, introduced to Egypt around 1500 BCE, became symbols of wealth and prestige due to their rarity before breeding programs developed. Chariots pulled by a pair of horses were used for ceremonies, hunting, and battle.4

ramRam amulet c. 664-630 BCE

Cats became perhaps the most popular pets and sacrificial objects for the Ancient Egyptians after their domestication between 4000 and 3500 BCE. They were closely associated with the fertility and child-rearing goddess Bastet. Many families would sacrifice female cats in the hopes of becoming pregnant. It is believed that some temples kept cats on their premises strictly for the purpose of providing worshippers with an easy offering.  As well, cats were kept as pets to prevent mice, snakes and rats from ruining precious Nile River crops and food sources.4 Similarly, dogs were kept as pets, for hunting and for guard duty.5

cat amuletCat figurine, ca. 1981–1802 B.C.

Less friendly felines and other ferocious wildlife on the floodplains were given reverence for their ability to cause harm.  Offerings were made and prayers were uttered in the hopes that dangerous wild animals would not cause trouble for their human neighbors sharing the same riverbanks. Cheetahs, as well as other large cats such as lions, were hunted for their prized furs, but also captured and kept as house pets. Such highly-regarded animals were aligned with the pharaoh, who was described as fearless and brave as a lion. Nile River crocodiles were given a divine status and associated with the god Sobek so as to give them an incentive to avoid humans. Given that these crocodiles could grow up to six meters long, it was important for the Egyptian people to feel that they had some sort of defense against them.

crocodileCrocodile Statue, Late 1st century B.C. – early 1st century A.D.

Snakes also were cause for caution as the poisonous Egyptian cobra and the black-necked spitting cobra had fatal venom. These snakes became protectors of the pharaoh and were often depicted poised on his brow.7 Although some animals were worshipped because they were feared, others were simply associated with important matters of life like fertility or bravery. All of these creatures, however, were vital to the religious livelihoods of the Ancient Egyptians, as well as to the Nile River Basin’s ecosystem.

Sources

1Partridge, Robert. “Sacred Animals of Ancient Egypt.” BBC. 17 February 2011. Web.
2Partridge, Robert. “Sacred Animals of Ancient Egypt.” BBC. 17 February 2011. Web.
3“Hippopotamus (‘William’).” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
4Partridge, Robert. “Sacred Animals of Ancient Egypt.” BBC. 17 February 2011. Web.
5Douglas, Ollie. “Animals and Belief.” Pitt Rivers Museum. Web.
6Partridge, Robert. “Sacred Animals of Ancient Egypt.” BBC. 17 February 2011. Web.
7Partridge, Robert. “Sacred Animals of Ancient Egypt.” BBC. 17 February 2011. Web.

All photos used based on Public Domain, courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Aswan High Dam Leaves an Environmental Legacy

November 7, 2017

by Joannah Otis for No Water No Life

This is the second our blog series on “The Nile River in Egypt” by NWNL Researcher Joannah Otis, sophomore at Georgetown University. Following her blog “Finding Hapi-ness on the Nile,” this essay addresses perhaps the greatest elements of change created thus far by humans along the Nile. [NWNL has completed documentary expeditions to the White and Blue Nile Rivers, but due to current challenges for photojournalists visiting Egypt and Sudan, NWNL is using literary and online resources to investigate the availability, quality and usage of the Nile in those regions.]

Aswan_DamAswan Dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt

Background on Aswan High Dam

The Nile River snakes south to north for 4,160 miles through ten North African countries until it reaches the Mediterranean Ocean.1 Its path is interrupted only by the great Aswan High Dam, which has brought both good and bad to the Egyptian people. Towering 364 feet tall and stretching 12,565 feet along its crest, the Aswan High Dam is impressive.2 This dam was opened in 1971 after a decade of construction and seeking funds from the Soviet Union.3 Its transboundary reservoir, Lake Nasser, which backs up into Sudan for 300 miles, holds nearly two years’ worth of water from the Nile River.

Benefits of the Aswan High Dam & Lake Nasser

The High Dam, replacing a 1902 Low Dam, annually generates more than 10 billion kilowatt hours of electricity, facilitating Egypt’s path to industrialization. This new dam also marked a major shift in Egypt’s agricultural prospects. Previously, Nile River Basin farmers were forced to depend on fickle seasonal flooding, which could bring appropriate levels of water one year and often completely washed away soil the next. Such unpredictability made it hard to grow a reliable crop; and the Nile’s single flooding season precluded farmers from having more than one harvest per year.

Lake Nasser’s surplus of water has well served the irrigation needs of Egypt and Sudan, since water availability is especially critical, given Egypt’s growing population and increasing water needs. (NB:  NWNL is studying these trends that portend dire water scarcity in the near future.) The Aswan Dam now allows for two to three crop cycles annually.  Nearby aquifers are inundated by increased amounts of water due to year long, rather than seasonal irrigation.  Water levels are carefully monitored and extra water is saved for times of drought. There has been huge economic benefit to the fact that the dams has allowed Egypt to triple the output of its most important and profitable crops, wheat and cotton.5  

Lake-nasserLake Nasser in Egypt.

Thus, the Aswan High Dam created a new future of irrigation water, flood control and electricity – but came with disconcerting drawbacks. Its story and continued influence on the Nile River illustrate how human ingenuity can inadvertently take a toll on the environments and ecosystems we so rely on.  The degradation of Nile ecosystems and the influx of increasing chemical runoff are reminders of the negative impacts that infrastructure, intended to improve quality of life, can have on nearby environments and habitats for all species, including humans.

Consequences of the Aswan High Dam & Lake Nasser

While Lake Nasser reservoir has allowed for controlled downstream flows into northern Egypt, that backlog of Nile water forced the relocation about 100,000 people to other lands in Sudan and Egypt.6 Abu Simbel Temple and 22 historical structures fortunately were moved under UNESCO’s watchful eye, yet Buhen Fort, the Fadrus Cemetery and other archeological sites (whose relocation would have been too costly) were submerged.

Stagnant waters in Lake Nasser have threatened the health of people using or residing near the Nile River waters. Downstream, the dam promotes the presence of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease also known as bilharzia or “snail fever.” Schistosomiasis kills more than 200,000 Africans annually; and 20 million sufferers develop disfiguring disabilities from complications, kidney and liver diseases, and bladder cancer.

Egyptian_harvest.jpgTomb Painting of Peasants Harvesting Papyrus

Seasonal flooding once brought thick layers of dark silt to farms, which farmers used a natural fertilizer. Unfortunately, the Aswan High Dam almost completely blocks the movement of nutrient-rich sediment downstream. (NB:  NWNL has seen similar impacts of Ethiopia’s new Gibe Dams, ending 6,000 years of flood-recession agriculture practiced by pastoralists in the Lower Omo River Basin.) As rich Upper Nile sediments collected behind the dam, Egyptian farmers resorted to toxic chemical fertilizers that drain into the Nile. These pollutants can cause liver disease and renal failure in humans.7 

Farming phosphates running into the river increase algae growth. Algae blooms, elicited by excess nutrients (eutrophication), produce cyanotoxins, which affect the health of fish and may poison humans.At the same time, fish populations no longer benefit from nutrients that used to be in upstream Nile sediments. Aquatic species in the Mediterranean Sea near the Nile Delta have suffered similarly from decreased natural nutrients and increased chemicals.9

Riverbanks also suffer from a lack of replenishing sediments as their erosion continues unchecked.  Prior to the dam’s construction, the average suspended silt load was 3,000 parts per million (ppm). Post-construction silt levels have declined to 50 ppm.10 Further downstream, the Nile Delta suffers from a lack of silt replenishment. [NB:  NWNL has documented parallel deltaic losses and damage in the U. S., as  levees along the Mississippi River withhold sediment that used to rebuild storm erosion in the Mississippi Delta.]

Silt-free water along with a lower current velocity and steady water levels have enabled invasive aquatic weeds to infest the Nile River and its irrigation canals. Large volumes of aquatic weeds, water hyacinths in particular, create stagnant water conditions, impair water flow, provide breeding grounds for malaria-carrying mosquitoes and prevent the passage of boats whose propellers become clogged with invasive weeds.  Prior to the dam’s construction, these weeds were unable to flourish due to the Nile’s varying water levels and the force of its flow.11

Eichhornia_crassipes_C.jpgWater Hyacinth  (Credit: Wouter Hagens)

Erosion in the Nile Delta is especially threatening because it has led to saltwater intrusion.   (NB: Again, this is another issue also occurring in the Mississippi River Delta.)  Increased groundwater salinity from the encroaching Mediterranean Sea is decreasing cotton and rice yields.12 Additionally, fertilizers have further heightened saline levels.13

Beyond Aswan:  Footnote by NWNL Director Alison Jones

In 2009, Egypt was the most populous, agricultural and industrial country in the Nile Basin.14 The Aswan Dam has been a major factor in this march by Egypt to progress and prosperity.  However, just as the Aswan Dam came with a price – so will the upstream Grand Renaissance Dam, now under construction in Ethiopia on the Blue Nile River.  It is likely the impacts of this new Ethiopian dam – the largest ever on the African continent – will be even more consequential to Egypt than those of the Aswan High Dam.  It seems a new chapter is about to be written regarding settlement of transboundary conflicts spawned from disputes over dam impacts and upstream-downstream water rights.

Sources

1“Nile River Facts.” Africa Facts. Web. 2017
2Caputo, Robert. “Journey up the Nile.” National Geographic. May 1985. p 602
3Caputo, Robert. “Journey up the Nile.” National Geographic. May 1985. p 602
4Caputo, Robert. “Journey up the Nile.” National Geographic. May 1985. p 600
5Biswas, Asit K.; Tortajada, Cecilia. “Impacts of the High Aswan Dam.” Third World Centre for Water Management. 2012. p 389
6Caputo, Robert. “Journey up the Nile.” National Geographic. May 1985. p 602
7Theroux, Peter. “The Imperiled.” National Geographic Magazine. January 1997.
8El-Sheekh M. “River Nile Pollutants and Their Effect on Life Forms and Water Quality,” in “The Nile.” (Dumont H.J, Monographiae Biologicae, Vol 89. Springer, Dordrecht)
9Biswas, Asit K.; Tortajada, Cecilia. “Impacts of the High Aswan Dam.” Third World Centre for Water Management. P 389. 2012.
10Biswas, Asit K.; Tortajada, Cecilia. “Impacts of the High Aswan Dam.” Third World Centre for Water Management. P 385. 2012.
11El-Shinnawy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Meguid, Mohamed; Nour Eldin, Mohamed M.; Bakry, Mohamed F. “Impact of Aswan High Dam on the Aquatic Weed Ecosystem.” Cairo University. September 2000. p 535-538.
12Theroux, Peter. “The Imperiled.” National Geographic Magazine. January 1997.
13World Wildlife Foundation. “Nile Delta flooded savanna.” Web. 2017.
14El-Sheekh M. “River Nile Pollutants and Their Effect on Life Forms and Water Quality,” in “The Nile.” (Dumont H.J, Monographiae Biologicae, Vol 89. Springer, Dordrecht)
All photos used based on fair use of Creative Commons and Public Domain.

Finding Hapi-ness on the Nile

October 24, 2017

By Joannah Otis for No Water No Life 

As the Nile River Basin is one of  6 NWNL case-study watersheds, NWNL has documented Ethiopia’s Blue Nile and Uganda’s White Nile.  Due however to current challenges faced by photojournalists visiting Egypt and Sudan, NWNL is using other resources to analyze the availability, quality and usage of the Nile from Khartoum north through Egypt.

This is the first in a blog series by NWNL Researcher Joannah Otis on the Nile River through Egypt, from 5000 BCE’s Ancient Egypt to today’s modern Egypt.  Joannah is a Georgetown University sophomore, focusing on Environmental Studies, Art History and Psychology.  Her home is in N.J.’s Upper Raritan River Basin, another NWNL case study watershed.   

The Ancient Egyptian pantheon of gods existed to explain the inexplicable for a people with little knowledge of the earth’s natural processes. Such faith in otherworldly figures resulted in elaborate rituals, impressive temples dedicated to specific deities, and intricate family trees. Among the most important of these gods was Hapi, also spelled Hapy, the Nile River God. Hapi’s significance in Ancient Egyptian culture indicates the vitality of the Nile River and reveals the extent of Egypt’s dependence on it.1

800px-Funerary_figure_of_Hapy_MET_LC-26_7_1195_EGDP023652Funerary Figure of Hapi 

Since the early Nile River people never ventured far enough upstream to find the river’s true source, they turned towards their faith for an explanation of seasonal flooding and the natural flow of the nutrient-rich waters they depended upon for agriculture. It was believed that the Nile originated beneath the island Philae whose waters came from an underwater cave where Hapi resided.2  In the pyramid texts, he was said to have lived in caverns near the first cataract. As the god of fertility and fecundity, Hapi was responsible for the seasonal floods as well as the success of farms and the availability of water. As the flood waters came rushing down the Nile, Ancient Egyptians would begin presenting their offerings and sacrifices to Hapi in hopes that the flood would neither be too high nor too low. Although Hapi was worshipped throughout Egypt, he was especially revered at Aswan, today the site of a 364 foot hydro-dam, and Gebel el-Silisila, once an ancient quarry.3

NileThe Nile River (Attribution: Ian Sewell)

In Ancient Egyptian depictions of Hapi, the god appears as a well-fed, blue or green man sporting the pharaoh’s false beard and a pair of large breasts because the Nile’s whitish waters were often associated with milk. There are no remains of temples dedicated solely to Hapi, but remnants of statues and reliefs in his likeness have been uncovered. Hapi was considered the god of both Upper and Lower Egypt, which was demonstrated by the existence of twin Hapi deities. The Hapi of Upper Egypt was known as ‘Hap-Meht’ and wore a lotus headdress while the Lower Egyptian Hapi was called ‘Hap-Reset’ and wore a papyrus headdress.

Egypt.ColossiMemnon.02Detail of Hapi from the side panel of a throne at the Colossi of Memnon

Hapi was often referred to as the ‘Lord of the Fishes and Birds of the Marshes’ and was at times worshipped over the sun god Ra.4 The Nile River God was associated with Osiris who was also linked to the Nile through his role in introducing the cultivation of wheat to the Egyptian people.5 Hapi’s wives were believed to be the cobra goddess Wadjet of Lower Egypt and the vulture goddess Nekhbet of Upper Egypt, both of whom were considered forms of Osiris’s wife Isis.6 It was Isis’s tears that were thought to replenish the Nile waters.7 Hapi’s importance in Egyptian culture and his relation to the other gods make him one of the most significant, if least well-known, gods.

1Holmes, Martha; Maxwell, Gavin; Scoones, Tim. Nile. BBC Books. 2004.
2Pavan, Aldo. The Nile From the Mountains to the Mediterranean. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 2006.
3Seawright, Caroline. “Hapi, God of the Nile, Fertility, the North and South.” 21 August 2001. Web.
4Seawright, Caroline. “Hapi, God of the Nile, Fertility, the North and South.” 21 August 2001. Web.
5Holmes, Martha; Maxwell, Gavin; Scoones, Tim. Nile. BBC Books. 2004.
6Seawright, Caroline. “Hapi, God of the Nile, Fertility, the North and South.” 21 August 2001. Web.
7Holmes, Martha; Maxwell, Gavin; Scoones, Tim. Nile. BBC Books. 2004.
All photos used based on fair use of Creative Commons.
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