Transboundary Ecological Impacts of a Border Wall

April 26, 2017

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Current Border Wall, Lukeville AZ.  Photo by Alison M. Jones

By Christina Belasco and Alison M. Jones

For all the recent talk about a U. S.-Mexico border wall, most rhetoric has ignored its significant environmental impacts.  Funding efforts for this massive, concrete wall are temporarily shelved; yet No Water No Life wants to promote discussion of the important watershed threats this wall poses, as the proposal is likely to reappear.

Those who think the almost-2,000-mile borderline from Texas to Tijuana would not have environmental impacts don’t understand that this corridor is more than an empty, arid space.  There are tenuous desert ecosystems within critical and vulnerable watersheds.  The health and very existence of local flora and fauna would be threatened.  Resultant flooding would increase.  Meanwhile, many argue that little – if anything – would be gained from constructing a border wall.

Cost of Wall – According to the Washington Post, the Wall will take over 3 years to construct at an estimated cost of $21.6 billion using taxpayer dollars.  This does not even include the $10 million/year for repairs that is currently spent .

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Saguaro Cactus in the transboundary Sonora Desert, near Aho AZ.  Photo by Alison M. Jones

Wildlife – The desert is home to bison, saguaro cactus, desert tortoise, prairie dogs, blackbirds, foxes, hawks and countless other species. Added wall construction would impact more than 100 endangered species, 108 migratory bird species, 4 wildlife refuges and critical wetlands.  More than 30 environmental and cultural laws have already been waived in the name of “national security” for just the present border-wall sections.

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Migratory cranes just north of the  Mexican border, Bosque del Apache NWR, NM  Photo by Alison M. Jones

Migration Corridors – One of the most devastating qualities of the border wall would be the abrupt blockage of migration corridors.  The wall wouldn’t just keep out unwanted people.  It would prevent species from moving freely to habitat crucial to their survival and to lands they have used for thousands and thousands of years.

Flash Floods – Most of the year, the desert is a very dry place to be; but when it rains, torrents come down ferociously.  Flash floods dump more than 1,000 cubic feet of water per second into the ecosystem, which carry debris downstream with it. A concrete border wall would further exacerbate severe erosion, chaos and destruction in nearby border towns above and beyond the flooding already caused by existing border-wall sections.

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Rio Grande in Albuquerque, AZ. Photo by Alison M. Jones

Tohono O’odham Tribe – The Tohono O’odham are a nation of indigenous peoples on the American continent. Their tribe is in a unique transboundary situation because their territory spans both the U.S and Mexico. This tribe is vehemently opposed to a larger border wall as it would directly overrule their sovereignty and would prevent them from reaching their sacred lands.  They also know it would disrupt regional ecosystems.

AZ-CHI-114.jpgPetroglyphs of Anasazi desert culture – similar to that of today’s Tohono O’Odham culture, Chinle AZ .  Photo by Alison M. Jones

RECOMMENDED SOURCES:

Burnett, John.  Mexico Worries That a New Border Wall Will Worsen Flooding.  NPR:  April 25, 2017.    http://www.npr.org/2017/04/25/525383494/trump-s-proposed-u-s-mexico-border-wall-may-violate-1970-treaty

Schuyler, Krista.  Continental Divide – Wildlife, People, and the Border Wall.  College Station TX:  Texas A & M University Press, 2012.

 


EarthDay’17: What if it was A Day Without Water?

April 22, 2017

Guest Opinions, Compiled by Christina Belasco

For many of us, a “Day Without Water on Earth” is unfathomable. But for many who live in drought stricken areas, a day without water is reality.  This Earth Day, NWNL is highlighting aspects of water we take for granted in our daily lives. We challenge you to take the time to learn where your water comes from; to take steps to conserve it; and to protect it as a resource for everyone. With no water, there is no life.  Even our very own bodies are about 70% water!

Here’s what NWNL friends say they’d miss on A Day Without Water.

Judith Shaw, NWNL Advisor: A day without water would bring home the fragility of our world. It would mean no gentle shower or fresh water from the tap. It would mean tragedy to communities where people travel miles to a shared source of water to bring home a gallon or two. Our rivers and streams would be dry, sacrificing all flora and fauna which thrive in that fine ecological niche. Here in Ohio, the Cuyahoga River would cease to exist, leaving Standing Rock as a memorial to what once was beautiful, generous and uplifting. Water is our life. It feeds the soul and nourishes our lives. Let us rise together to protect our resources forever.

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Frontenac MN, Mississippi River Basin. Photo by Alison M. Jones.

John Ruskey, Lower Mississippi River Steward and “Rivergator:”  I would miss the sparkling exuberance of water dancing in the middle of a pond on a windy day, the ripply laughter of a gurgling creek, the refreshing showers of misty rain,  the thrilling wildness of a snowstorm, and the deep resounding soulfulness of the big muddy river in flood.

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Old Moon, Ursa Major, Voyageur Canoe, Towboats on Lower Mississippi River.  Watercolor by John Ruskey.

Jacob Mwanduka, Mau Forest Steward in Kenya’s Mara River Basin:  Can you imagine a world without water? Even for a few minutes! In Kenya and Africa as a whole, we are water-deficient localities.  This causes conflicts with no solution in sight. Water-harvesting at family levels should be encouraged and supported, especially to rural and urban under-privileged people. Over and above highlighting this plight, basic solutions must be undertaken as long-term answers are sought.

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Aerial view of dry river beds in Namibia. Photo by Alison M. Jones.

Barbara Folger, NWNL Project Coordinator and Photographer:  In a Day Without Water, I would miss the amazing dances of the Sandhill Cranes that roost in the Platte River during their migrations.

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Sandhill Cranes in Platte River, NE, Mississippi River Basin. Photo by Barbara Folger

Christina Belasco, NWNL Project Manager: Every day we take for granted the ease with which we access clean water through infrastructure. In a day without water, we simply wouldn’t know what to do for our basic needs, we couldn’t survive.

American folk song:
What’cha gonna do when the well runs dry?
Gonna sit on the bank, watch the crawdads die.
Honey, oh sugar baby of mine.

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Big Stream, The Ozarks, Mississippi River Basin. Photo by Alison M. Jones

Alison Jones, NWNL Executive Director and Photographer: 

A Day Without Water would be one day removed
From A Day Without Earth – as we’ve known it.
There’s a reason that people have settled
Along the sea and rivers for 10,000 years.
Water sustains, cleanses, irrigates and transports us.
Water is a universal gift to each of us.

As a “country girl on a day without water, I’d miss:
Birds and butterflies at puddles and birdbaths;
The stream’s gurgle that lulls me to sleep at night;
Floating, splashing, and wetting my lips to whistle;
That cool drink of water just an arm’s reach from me now;
The feel of dew, fog, steam, rain and snow on my face.

As a photographer on a day without water, I’d miss:
Seeking the ripples, currents and eddies of
Waterfalls, ponds, puddles and springs,
Rivers, riverbanks, rivulets and rills,
Brooks, bayous, creeks, and cricks,
Lakes, lagoons, lochs and playas;
Sloshing thru wetlands in rubber boots;
Knowing a line of willows and reeds indicates a stream.

As a researcher on a day without water, I would worry:
Since my brain is75% water, could I still think?
Since my lungs are 90% water, could I still breathe?
Since water lubricates my joints, could I still move?
Since industry and agriculture need water:  No Water No Economy!
Since fish and crops need water:  No Water No Food!

On a Day without Water, I’d realize water connects us all,
No matter what our differences are.
So, on this Earth Day, we invite all to join the NWNL Team
In sharing the importance of protecting our water resources.
Talk with family, friends, and neighbors about water.
Join our pledge to help ensure Clean Water – Every Day – For All!

EarthDay’17 isn’t a Day Without Water. It’s a Day for Teamwork!

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Trout Lake and Mt. Adams, WA. Columbia River Basin.  Photo by Alison M. Jones


Better Water for Our Appalachian Neighbors

March 17, 2017

By Alison M. Jones

Clean water is a vital and existential need. Many say it is a human right. It is certainly critical to good health. However, not all Americans are guaranteed access to clean water.  NWNL recently read about serious contamination of Eastern Kentucky’s drinking water.

In 2013, NWNL documented this eastern edge of the Mississippi River Basin. Appalachia is filled with misty hollers. Old men rock on front porches, waiting for the warming morning sun to peek into their yard.

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Drinking water for rural Appalachian residents should be as sparkly clean as the tumbling waters in their Cumberland River.

But Eastern Kentucky’s water supplies are contaminated by sewage and years of coal and gas extraction.  Coal processing is never far from rivers. In the rain, unprotected piles of black coal leach into the ground and then nearby bodies of water.

The health of residents in Appalachia’s Tennessee and Ohio River Basins is not only impacted by coal’s direct pollution of rivers and groundwater, but also by black carbon – polluted particulate matter spewed from coal-fired power plants. According to the Earth Institute of Columbia University, black carbon particulates are “especially dangerous to human health because of their tiny size.”  This fine soot is “formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass.” It fills the air folks breathe and then drops, polluting land and drinking water supplies below.

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Such pollution damages the health of thirsty children and their elders, as well as wildlife and fish. “Breathing in particulate matter of black carbon’s sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, sodium chloride and mineral dust poses the greatest health risks because these particles find their way deep into lungs and the bloodstream, causing cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and premature death.” Black carbon also affects visibility; harms ecosystems; reduces agricultural productivity and exacerbates global warming.

While still debating continued use of coal, U.S. politicians indicate they want to update infrastructure, including rural water delivery and waste-water systems. That should give hope to Eastern Kentucky residents who need federal support for such infrastructure, since public/private funding in Appalachia is minimal.

While shiny new bridges provide visible evidence of federal support, new underground water tanks and pipes are invisible. Human health needs should be recognized as a top priority. Clean water will reduce illness and health care costs in Eastern Kentucky. Providing clean drinking water to all Americans is as important as new bridges.

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“If only civilization did not bring with it pollution.” Children’s mural in Ericeria, Portugal.

RESOURCES for this blog

 

Becker, Benny. “Kentucky Community Hopes Trump Infrastructure Plan Will Fix Water System,” NPR: March 13, 2017. http://n.pr/2mjp9pp

Cho, Renee. “The Damaging Effects of Black Carbon,” Earth Institute of Columbia University. |March 22, 2016.    http://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2016/03/22/the-damaging-effects-of-black-carbon

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. “What is Black Carbon? https://www3.epa.gov/airquality/blackcarbon/basic.html

 


Celebrating World Wildlife Day!

March 3, 2017

By Christina Belasco

Today we celebrate World Wildlife Day. Acting to preserve our planet’s treasured biodiversity is more important now than ever. To honor our beloved creatures we share with you all today photos from our African and North American case study watersheds! We can never forget that these animals all depend on healthy, clean fresh water so we must protect our watersheds as well. Each animal, no matter how big or small, plays a critical role in the ecosystem and are all worthy of love and conservation. This reminds us all that no action we take in conservation is too small. We thank local environmental stewards everywhere for standing up for their ecosystems.

Africa:

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Kenya, Maasai Mara National Reserve. Elephants are a flagship species of the Maasai Mara Reserve. They are a key indicator species, and are in danger due to illegal poaching for their ivory.

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Tanzania, Lake Manyara National Park. An Olive Baboon (papio anubis) eats a kigelia nut in groundwater forest. The baboon’s greatest threats are habitat loss due to deforestation as well as human hunting.

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Kenya, Maasai Mara National Reserve. An Impala Herd grazes at sunset. Impala are an important food source for many predators in the African Savanna, and are a very adaptable species.

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Tanzania, Lake Manyara National Park. A Lioness is perched in an Acacia tree. Lionesses hunt for the pride. These predators of the Savanna are in danger because of habitat loss and poaching.

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Tanzania: Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The annual Wildebeest migration is one of the seven wonders of the natural world, when over 1.5 million Wildebeest trod in an enormous loop through Tanzania and Kenya.

North America:

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Columbia River Basin, Greater Yellowstone. The Buffalo was once the great icon of the heartland of the United States, and are sacred to the Native Americans of the plains who relied on Buffalo for centuries as their source of food, material, and ceremony. As the settlers came, the Buffalo was nearly hunted out of existence. Thanks to recent conservation efforts, especially in Yellowstone National Park, this giant creature is making a slow comeback.

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Washington, Columbia River Basin. Chinook Salmon are critical to river ecosystems in the Northwest. The single most damaging threat to the Salmon are dams, which block their ability to migrate downstream and into the ocean where they need to go to complete their life cycle.

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New Jersey, Mountainville (Raritan River Basin). Atlantis fritillary butterfly feeds on the bloom of a bush. Butterfly are not only beautiful, they help pollinate flowers and are a key indicator species.

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Louisiana, Atchafalaya Basin. The Alligator in the Atchafalaya Basin is a critical predator. It faces a multitude of threats including habitat loss, immense pollution, and human hunting.

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New Jersey, Upper Raritan River Basin. Honeybee populations all over the world are facing an enormous crisis due to pesticide spraying and climate change.


Showering in South Sudan…Sometimes

February 3, 2017

DSC_6347.JPGNWNL Director Alison Jones met fellow journalist Dale Willman just before he left for South Sudan. We stayed in touch as he worked to help young local journalists in this Nile River Basin, newly-formed country.   Dale is an award-winning editor, reporter, trainer and photographer with decades of reporting from five continents. During more than 15 years in Washington, DC, he worked for NPR, CBS and CNN. As a trainer, he was recently in South Sudan working with the staff of a local radio station. During the first Gulf War he reported from London for NPR, providing coverage for an IRA bombing campaign. 

South Sudan’s struggles with peace and availability of clean water continue to create disturbing headlines.  NWNL is proud to carry Dale’s story. 

By Dale Willman

Showering outside is one of the few pleasures for a temperate-zone kind of guy working in the tropics.

But water is a precious resource in South Sudan. It is also a complicated topic. For many of the country’s 8-10 million people, clean drinking water is relatively accessible. The operative word here of course is “relatively.”

I lived in Turalei, a small village in South Sudan from July of 2015 until March 2016. Older U. S. sports aficionados will remember its most famous resident, NBA basketball star Manut Bol, who is now buried in a memorial north of the village. I was there as a journalism trainer for Radio Mayardit. We lived in a fenced compound with our radio station, a small living area of three tukuls (small huts), a cooking area, latrines – and that outdoor shower.

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Turalei is a sleepy village. Its rutted dirt roads pass by market stalls made of sticks and rusty, corrugated metal roofs.  Posters of soldiers killed in the country’s civil war are plastered on a monument that marks the middle of the village. Food is scarce. I lost 30 pounds in my first two months. For a guy more comfortable with snow, it is hot. South Sudan is a tropical country where daytime temperatures regularly reach north of 115 degrees. An evening shower under the stars helped me survive.

The entire country however lacks the most basic infrastructure, including running water. Many larger villages have at least one wellhead, thanks to the tireless work of dozens of NGOs over the past ten years. But for those in the countryside, which is most of the country’s population, the nearest well may be a kilometer or more away. That presents difficulties for some of the country’s most vulnerable citizens – its youngest population.

Children are an economic asset in this country. Kids working at home are more important to a family struggling to survive than kids getting a classroom education. So rather than backpacks filled with books like American school kids, many South Sudanese children carry dirty, yellow jerry cans a kilometer or two from wellhead to home. Each can holds five or more gallons of water and weighs 40 pounds or more. Often children do this several times each day in order to have water for the most basic of needs – cooking and bathing among them.

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Having access to clean water though does not mean that the water people drink is clean. For as many as 2/3 of homes, by the time water is consumed it is contaminated with E coli and other impurities, according to research over the past decade.

Open storage is a huge problem. In Turalei’s compound where I lived and worked, drinking water was kept outside in a 50-gallon drum, loosely covered by a broken wooden board, often left lying on the ground. It was not uncommon to see mosquito larvae and pupas floating in the water. Birds that regularly sat on the drum’s rim would defecate into the water. And of course the dust – there is always dust – also infiltrates the barrel.

And there’s that shower I so relished. The water tank for my shower was regularly left uncovered. The container was so contaminated that at one point I was treated for a ruptured eardrum, probably caused by an infection from contaminated water.

Transport of water from its source to a home is another source of potential contamination. Many worked and lived in our compound, thus our water needs were extensive. A young man we hired regularly brought the water to us in two 50-gallon drums welded together and hauled on a donkey cart. One day my shower smelled of petrol. It’s possible that he made a little extra money that week by hauling fuel for someone, using the same drums he used for our water.

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How water is stored in the home plays another major role in whether families will be drinking clean water. The jerry cans that store water in homes across South Sudan are often also used for cooking oil, petrol and other commodities.

The way water is used, or not used, is a significant health factor for the country’s population. It was common during my year in South Sudan for me to see people returning from a toilet before meals without washing their hands. Since most meals are eaten communally, diarrheal diseases easily spread through entire communities.

Throughout history, water has played a major role in defining South Sudan. The White Nile divides this country as it flows from its Ugandan southern border to its northern Sudanese border. Above Juba, the nation’s capital, the river spreads out to form the world’s largest swamp called The Sudd.

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In 61 A.D., The Sudd blocked invading Romans, ending Emperor Nero’s hope of dominating all of Africa. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, the British attempted to cut through the Sudd. While the British were periodically successful, their efforts were always short-lived. Nature, it turns out, is a better reclamation artist than humans usually give credit. Even now, the Egyptian government’s effort to create a canal to drain a portion of the swamp in the next 24 years has stalled.

For many years, The Sudd has been an advantage for the citizens of South Sudan, having created a natural barrier to fighting that has ravaged the country. With much of the conflict based around the oil fields in the northeast, the Sudd has prevented some of that fighting from infecting much of the nation’s western flank.

Like I said, water is a complicated issue in South Sudan.


Let Salmon Migrate Up the Snake River Again

January 20, 2017

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Fish ladder in a Columbia River Dam. Alison Jones/NWNL

By Alison Jones, NWNL Executive Director

Mitigation against impacts on salmon populations by the Columbia/Snake River dams has been deemed insufficient.  Thus, NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) has asked the US Army Corps of Engineers, NOAA and the Bureau of Reclamation to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for breaching, bypassing, or removing 14 Federal dams – including the 4 Lower Snake River Dams.  These agencies are now accepting public comments.  Given drastic declines of salmon, NWNL and many others who agree that avian predation management and “safety-net” hatcheries don’t do enough are sending in comments.  (More background info at www.crso.info.)

TO COMMENT on the Snake River Dams (by Feb. 7): Email comment@crso.info. Call 800-290-5033. Or mail letters to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, NW Div., Attn: CRSO EIS, P.O. Box 2870, Portland, OR 97208-2870.

Our NWNL Comment on the 4 Lower Snake River Dams sent to the US Army Corps of Engineers, NOAA and Bureau of Reclamation:

For 10 years No Water No Life® has studied freshwater issues in the Columbia River Basin. We’ve focused on the Lower 4 Snake River Dams since 2014. During our 4-week Snake River Expedition, NWNL interviewed 17 scientists, fishermen, commercial farmers, USF&W staff, hatchery and dam operators, power companies, historians, the Port of Lewiston Manager and the Nez Perce Dept. of Fisheries. (Our 2014 Snake River itinerary)

After 3 follow-up visits to the Snake River Basin and continued research, No Water No Life asks you to breach, bypass or remove the Lower 4 Snake River dams. Below are the Q & A’s that informed our conclusion:

 Who cares about the future of the Lower 4 Snake River dams?  Many people – in and beyond the Columbia River Basin – are concerned. So far, over 250,000 taxpayer advocates have delivered comments supporting wild salmon and healthy rivers, according to Save our Wild Salmon. That’s a ¼ million people who’ve spoken out on meaningful, cost-effective salmon restoration that could occur with the removal of the 4 costly dams on the lower Snake River.

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Lower Granite Dam on Snake River’s Lake Bryan. Alison Jones/NWNL

Is there a real threat if nothing changes? Yes. The Endangered Species Coalition put Snake River Chinook on its top “Top Ten” list last month. In his examination of the Port of Lewiston’s diminishing role, Linwood Leahy notes we are pushing the salmon to extinction, even though they were here long before homo sapiens.

Is this plea just for salmon? No. Removing the Lower 4 Snake River dams will aid recovery of wild salmon, orca whales, freely-flowing rivers and forests enriched by remains of spawned salmon carrying ocean nutrients upstream. Nature built a fine web where species and ecosystems connect in ways we will probably never fully understand – but must respect. Loss of one species affects the entire trophic cascade of an ecosystem – be it the loss of predator species (e.g., lion or wolves) or the bottom of the food chain (e.g., herring or krill).

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Salmon hatchery in Columbia/Snake River System. Alison Jones/NWNL

The unique and already-endangered orcas (aka Southern Resident killer whales) are highly susceptible to declines of Snake River salmon, per The Orca Network. The Center for Whale Research claims that salmon restoration must “include the Fraser, Skagit and Columbia/Snake Rivers, the key sources that provide the wild salmon that the whales need to survive.”

How do the dams impact the salmon? Fish biologists agree that dams have decreased wild fish populations by making it more difficult for juvenile and adults to migrate to and from the ocean. Dams become salmon-killers each summer as water temperatures become lethally hot in slow-moving, open reservoirs. Even a 4-degree increase can kill thousands of fish.  When the dams go, wild salmon can again access over 5,000 miles of pristine, high-elevation habitat which is much cooler for salmon in this warming world.  Dam removal is agreed to be the single most effective means to restore populations of wild salmon, steelhead and Pacific Lamprey. It will also restore U. S. fishing industry jobs.

Does the Pacific NW need these 4 Snake River Dams for hydro energy? No. These outdated dams produce only 3% of the region’s power – and only during spring run-off, when demand is low. The electricity the dams produce can be replaced by affordable, carbon-free energy alternatives. Local wind energy has exploded and easily exceeds the capacity of the dams — by 3.4 times as much in the Pacific Northwest.  On some days the dam authorities can’t give away the little power they generate.  In light of that, it is wrong that taxpayers support exorbitant costs of maintaining these days (estimated at $133.6 million for 2015).

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Little Goose Lock and Dam on the Snake River. Alison Jones/NWNL

Do farmers or others need the Lower 4 Snake River Dams?  No. Distinct from the Columbia River system, the Snake River barge traffic, enabled by dams, has declined 70% in 20 years. Using the Corps of Engineers’ categorization, the Snake River has been a waterway of “negligible use” for years. There is no longer any containerized, barge shipping of lumber, wood chips, paper or pulse (peas, lentils, garbanzos) from the Snake River or anywhere to the Port of Portland. The only remaining shipping is for non-container commodities, such as wheat from the Palouse, which could be moved solely by truck-to-rail, instead of truck-to-barge. For further data, please feel free to email us (info@nowater-nolife.org) for a copy of “Lower Snake River Freight Transportation: Twenty Years of Continuous Decline” (October 25, 2016 by Linwood Laughy of Kooskia, Idaho).

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Wheat fields and wind energy in Snake River Basin. Alison Jones/NWNL

Much rail infrastructure is already in place and being expanded in realization that the dams are aging, performing as sediment traps (especially with climate change) and incurring heavy repair costs to prevent crumbling. The needed and smart investment would be a few more “loop rail” terminals with storage for grain. Long term, this will provide very cost-efficient and environmentally-friendly transport. There is a growing movement supporting more rail infrastructure, and even electric rail, in the US to create an interconnected and cleaner energy future.

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Ritzville WA Train Depot and grain silos in Snake River Basin. Alison Jones/NWNL

We ask you to avoid outdated date, miscalculations and past errors.  We ask you to hire independent, informed experts for their input on the dams’ actual costs and relevance.  We ask you to make the wise environmental and economical choice. Thank you.

Alison M. Jones, Executive Director of No Water No Life®, LLC

 


“Living Shorelines” Can Fortify Our Coastlines … A Solution at Work in New Jersey’s Raritan Bay

November 29, 2016

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A “living wall” of oysters in the South Atlantic. Photo: Alison M. Jones for No Water No Life

By Meredith Comi, Restoration Program Director of the NY/NJ Baykeeper 

After Hurricane Sandy, it was clear that coastal resiliency had become an immediate priority. Thus, Baykeeper began an innovative project to determine if a “Living Shoreline” of oysters could stabilize eroding shorelines of the urban New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Perhaps they would simultaneously protect the surrounding environment, improve water quality, and create healthy aquatic habitats.

Oysters are powerful. They can filter and clean water, a much-needed service today. They can provide reef habitat for other sea creatures and improve resiliency to storm surge and erosion. Oysters once thrived in the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary — so much so that Ellis Island was previously called Little Oyster Island.  However, over-harvesting, pollution and the sedimentation of reefs resulted in a sharp population decline. Today there is no longer a sustainable oyster population in the NY-NJ Harbor area; but NY/NJ Baykeeper is working to restore them. As a bi-state restoration leader, NY/NJ Baykeeper has had restoration projects in both NJ and NY waters.

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“Oyster-keepers” in the Raritan Bay. Photo: NJ/NY Baykeeper

In mid-August, 2016, NY/NJ Baykeeper and its partners installed a first-of-its-kind urban “Living Shoreline” in northern New Jersey waters.  Located in the Raritan Bay at the Naval Weapons Station Earle in Monmouth County, a new 0.91 acre Living Shoreline consists of an artificial reef, using live oysters. Known as “oyster castles,” these new concrete structures are meant to provide the needed hard surface on which oysters can attach and grow. These 137 castles with about 10,000 oyster larvae can thus begin to fortify and protect the Raritan Bayshore.

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Oyster stabilization in the Mississippi River Delta.  Photo: Alison M. Jones for No Water No Life 

In 2010 the NJ Department of Environmental Protection banned all shellfish research, restoration and education activities in waters (1) deemed too contaminated or (2) “Restricted” or “Prohibited” for shellfish harvest.  Thus earlier oyster reef projects in nearby Navesink River and Keyport Harbor had to be moved. At that point, the U.S. Navy and NY/NJ Baykeeper became “Living Shoreline” partners. The U.S. Navy at Naval Weapons Station Earle, with its non-accessible stretch of shoreline, provides protected property, guidance and valuable support for Baykeeper’s oyster restoration activities.

Additional restoration activities at Naval Weapons Station Earle include setting oysters at NY/NJ Baykeeper’s aquaculture facility near the mouth of Ware Creek, and monitoring the oysters and structures in the ¼-acre experimental restoration plot to assess survival and growth.

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Deposition of “oyster castles” into the Raritan Bay at NWS Earle.

NY/NJ Baykeeper has monitored this Living Shoreline twice since its August installation, finding that the oysters grew 22mm in just 2 months!  Other organisms like sponges and algae are attached to the castles as well, further contributing to the Living Shoreline habitat.  All the castles have stayed in place, even during the rough seas when Hurricane Hermine was off shore. This is a good sign of how the castles will hold up in the dynamic Raritan Bay.

This winter, oyster growth will become slower as the water becomes cooler. Since all the oysters are far enough under the water’s surface, they will be protected should the Bay freeze over. Come spring, this Living Shoreline will be expanded, adding more castles and oysters to the system.  Meanwhile, NY/NJ Baykeeper continues its study of biodiversity  and its collection of water quality data.

For further information, please contact Meredith Comi at meredith@nynjbaykeeper.org


The Circles of Cultures and of Water

November 7, 2016

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By Alison Jones, Executive Director of No Water No Life

In the 1970’s my mother gave me Touch the Earth: A Self-Portrait of Indian Existence by T. C. McLuhan (1971). I was intrigued by the sepia photographs of Native Americans by Edward S. Curtis.

After reading Timothy Egan’s book on Curtis (The Short Nights of a Shadow Catcher, 2012), I pulled my mother’s book off the shelf. While its paper cover is somewhat raggedy, the photos and text inside again mesmerized me. These two books, when taken together, underline the significance of perpetual circles within Native American cultures, before and after their forced reservation existence.

Why write about this for No Water No Life?  I want to share the correlation of cyclical sustainability between water and indigenous cultures.  Many of thoughts in Touch the Earth I’ve heard in NWNL interviews with indigenous cultures in African and North American river basins.  Mandala-like spherical designs abound in the decor and life of the Chinook, Nez Perce, Colville, Choctaw, Okanagan, K’tunuxa and Californian tribes.

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Both the Hydrologic Cycle and Indian circular designs represent more than a graphic pattern and reflect NWNL’s search for clean fresh water for all, forever.  The Hydrologic Cycle illustrates replenishment.  Native Americans consider how impacts will roll outward from their circle – for at least for 7 generations –  before making decisions. Many of today’s water problems, induced by pollution, infrastructure and climate change, might not exist if “new” Americans were better at weighing eventual risks to our life cycles.

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce:  “We were contented to let things remain as the Great Spirit made them. [The white men who moved the Nez Perce to Lapwai] were not.  They would change the rivers if they did not suit them.”

Going deeper, what grounded the Native American focus on circles?  While reading Native American commentaries in Touch the Earth, I noted many mentions of circular rhythms and constructions. Cycles are found in their prayers where the four seasons and four cardinal points on a compass are centered by their Great Spirit.

Black Elk, prayed at Harney Peak in The Black Hills in 1931 to the Great Spirit:  “From the west, you have given me the cup of living water… You have given me a sacred wind… of the cleansing power and the healing…. At the center of this sacred hoop you have said that I should make the tree to bloom and be filled with singing birds.”

For ten years No Water No Life has focused on the health of water’s hydrologic cycle as it passes from clouds, mountains and rivers, down to the sea and back up into clouds again. It seems Native Americans focus on that too as they design their circular tipis, drums, beaded jewelry and dances?

Chief Luther Standing Bear said, “The man — who sat on the ground in his tipi meditating on life and its meaning, accepting the kinship of all creatures and acknowledging unity with the universe of things — was infusing into his being the true essence of civilization.”

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Here are some more passages from Touch the Earth that I have enjoyed:

Chief Flying Hawk, Ogalala Sioux, born about full moon of March 1852: “The tipi is much better to live in: always clean, warm in winter, cool in summer; easy to move….  Nobody can be in good health if he does not have fresh air, sunshine and good water all the time.”

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Hehaka Sapa, the holy man of the Sioux:  “They have put us in these square boxes. Our power is gone and we are dying for the power is not in us any more. When we were living by the power of the circle, in the way we should, boys were men at 12 or 13. But now it takes them very much longer to mature.”

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Tatanga Mani, a Stoney Indian:  “I turn to the Great Spirit’s book, which is the whole of his creation. You can read a big part of that book if you study nature. …The Great Spirit has provided you and me with an opportunity for study in nature’s university, the forests, the rivers, the mountains and the animals, which include us.”

 

 

 

 

 

 


Global Drought Threats – New Jersey Up Next?

October 25, 2016

jones_160925_ca_5749Stanislaus National Forest at the Yosemite N.P. entryway. Trees are dying by the thousands here due to the nexus of drought, high temperatures, fires, and pine bark beetle infestation. 

By Christina Belasco, NWNL Project Manager

When Americans hear the word “drought” these days, they may instantly envision a scene of a heat-scorched, fire-ridden California. Of course this is for good reason – the California drought is entering its sixth year, and shows no sign of stopping in the southern part of the state.

NWNL has just completed its 5th CA Drought Spotlight expedition, covering 1,300 miles from the headwaters within Yosemite and Kings Canyon N.P to the Central Valley to coastal estuaries. It is clear that water consumption patterns and habits must change. NWNL witnessed the devastation of the Rey Fire, Loma Fire, Rim Fire and others that have heavily impacted California’s forests.

NWNL also witnessed homes in East Porterville that still do not have access to running water for the 3rd year straight due to groundwater depletion and lack of piping.

 

USA California, No Water No Life CA Drought Expedition # 5,Here is a “bathtub ring” typically found in California reservoirs, showing significant drops in water levels due to drought and overuse. 

Another stark example of a region filled with drought woes is Northeastern China, where climate change is causing extreme desertification, despite some governmental efforts to reduce the trend. Villages are being pushed out, and have been for decades now, as the desert continues to creep eastward at a rate of 1,300 square miles per year.

Such examples of extreme drought worsened by climate change seem like an unbelievable scenario, things that happen in far off places, other worlds. Many Americans on the East Coast could never imagine this happening in their own backyard.

 

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Usually a healthy, flowing river, the Kaweah River in Tulare County, CA is now a dried-up riverbed. 

However, green trees and rain aren’t sure signs that water supply is plentiful. In fact most people don’t treat their water as if it is a finite resource, which it is. The truth is that the effects of climate change are everywhere. They are happening here right now.

Fourteen New Jersey counties are now in a drought warning. Reservoir levels, stream flows and groundwater levels are showing signs of depletion across the state.

What can we do about this?

Besides just reducing personal water usage, NJ citizens are pressuring Governor Christie to act and pass legislation for the Water Supply Master Plan. This master plan includes recommendations for balancing the amount of used water with the amount of replenished water. This would ensure that there will be enough water for the private sector, agriculture, residents and the environment.

Websites like njwatersavers.rutgers.edu are advocating for water awareness and sustainability across the state, and have information on how to directly help.

NWNL urges East Coast citizens to think of the impacts of drought before it comes barreling towards them at full speed. Acting preventatively, and taking a can-do approach to climate change, are some of the best ways we can work together to change our unsustainable habits and save the planet for future generations.

 

 


10 Facts on Wetlands Values!

September 19, 2016

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A wetland is a habitat where land is covered by water – salt, fresh, or a mixture of both. A wetland is a distinct ecosystem. Marshes, bogs, ponds and deltas are all examples of wetlands. No Water No Life is focusing our social media this week on the importance of wetlands, threats they face, and possible solutions to conserving our wetlands for generations to come. Here are 10 facts about wetlands you may not know!

  1. Wetlands provide habitat to in numerous species of mammals, insects, and aquatic life.
  2. Wetlands are some of the most productive ecosystems on earth! The amount of living matter in a wetland can be 10 to 100 times that of dry land nearby. TZ-B-W-208.jpg
  3. More than 1/3 of threatened and endangered species in the U.S live only in wetlands, and nearly half use wetlands at some point in their lives.
  4. Wetlands provide the perfect habitat for growing rice – a staple food for more than half the world. 
  5. When thousands of species of birds set off to migrate varied distances across the globe every year, wetlands serve as the perfect “pit stop” for them providing crucial food and protection before they reach their final stop.
  6. Wetlands purify water in our streams, rivers, and oceans. Scientists have estimated wetlands can remove 70 to 90% of entering nitrogen! Jones_080815_BC_8213.jpg
  7. The Atchafalaya Basin in Louisiana is the largest wetland area in the U.S, and serves as a storm barrier for much of southern Louisiana.
  8. Wetlands help mitigate flooding because their soil acts like a sponge. It soaks up and holds water, thus slowing its velocity. It is estimated that wetlands provide $23.2 billion worth of flood protection per year!
  9. Wetlands protect shorelines and stream banks from erosion and absorb wave energy. Water plants hold soil in its place with their roots.
  10. Wetlands hold a special cultural and historic role for humans! We can use them for sustainable recreation, artwork, and even spiritual relief. Wetlands contribute greatly to our quality of life and health of our planet! Jones_080204_ET_8165.jpg

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